Levels of maximum end-expiratory carbon monoxide and certain cardiovascular parameters following hubble-bubble smoking.
Shafagoj YA, Mohammed FI.
Saudi Med J. 2002 Aug;23(8):953-8.
OBJECTIVE: The physiological effects of cigarette smoking have been widely studied, however, little is known regarding the effects of smoking hubble-bubble. We examined the acute effects of hubble-bubble smoking on heart rate, systolic, diastolic, and mean arterial blood pressure and maximum end-expiratory carbon monoxide.
METHODS: This study was carried out in the student laboratory, School of Medicine, Department of Physiology, University of Jordan, Amman, Jordan, during the summer of 1999. In 18 healthy habitual hubble-bubble smokers, heart rate, blood pressure, and maximum end-expiratory carbon monoxide was measured before, during and post smoking of one hubble-bubble run (45 minutes).
RESULTS: Compared to base line (time zero), at the end of smoking heart rate, systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, mean arterial blood pressure, and maximum end-expiratory carbon monoxide were increased 16 2.4 beats per minute, 6.7 2.5 mm Hg, 4.4 1.6 mm Hg, 5.2 1.7 mm Hg, and 14.2 1.8 ppm, (mean standard error of mean, P<.05).
CONCLUSION: Acute short-term active hubble-bubble smoking elicits a modest increase in heart rate, systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, mean arterial blood pressure and maximum end-expiratory carbon monoxide in healthy hubble-bubble smokers.